GEO is standardized to meet the specs of US Patent 6,706,756 and US Patent 7,132,446 for 15% vasodilation and 50% vasodilation. Page 83 Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 957: 78–89 (2002). ©2002 New York Academy of Sciences, Adapted from Fitzpatrick et al. with permission from the American Chemical Society. The most significant take away from this email is that you can achieve up to a 50% vasodilation with only 300 mg’s of our GEO versus other nitric oxide products on the market which require anywhere from 4-8 Grams of product in order to product a mere 5% vasodilation. 

The GEO is achieving this vasodilation by isolating both small and large molecules that are galloylated epicatechin monomers forming each procyanidins are between two and five; specifically, the chemical compound for inducing endothelium dependent relaxation in the blood vessels is comprised of isolated epicatechin –(4-8)-epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-gallate(C1-gallate). Phoinix Holdings GEO has been studied, and those results have been peer-reviewed and published in The New York Annals Academy of Sciences and the Journal of Agriculture Food and Chemistry.

The procyanidins in GEO, a proprietary naturally extracted oligomer, containing levels of specific vasodilating catechins found within the selected source material, can act as an anti-inflammatory to reduce production of reactive oxygen species. During inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is induced in the macrophages, catalyzing the reaction producing cytotoxic amounts of nitric oxide (typically micromolar concentrations). In this case, nitric oxide can combine with superoxide to form peroxynitrites. Peroxynitrites can then interact with lipids and proteins and can direct the cells to programmed cell death or necrosis.


The results showed up to a 15% and 50% vasodilation by stimulating nitric oxide production by the endothelial cells. Page 6386 J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 48, No. 12, 2000, Fitzpatrick et al... While grape seed was used as the source to extract these molecules, these same molecules can be extracted from multiple sources, or be synthesized. For GEO, we chose to use green tea leaves as it has a higher concentration of these galloylated epicatechins and is universally accepted as a source material for both human and animal. It is our goal to a version of our GEO extracted from multiple organic materials.

Gallate Enhanced Oligomer?